Opioid analgesics are considered the mainstay of pain management. The primary goal of analgesia is optimizing the patient’s comfort. However, opioid dosing may be complicated in patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment. Most recommendations are based on case reports; therefore, appropriate analgesic agent selection requires a thorough understanding of the drugs’ pharmacokinetics and side-effect profiles. Should morphine and hydromorphone be dose-reduced in patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency? Read more at Medscape.*
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