From Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Reviews the current theory of the effect of pain on patients with pain and concomitant addiction, the psychophysiology of pain, opioid use and addiction, and future research in this area.
Opioid therapy is one component of an effective pain management regimen for patients with chronic pain and the majority of these patients use their medications responsibly. However, there are a growing number of these patients who develop an opioid use disorder and in some cases require opioid replacement therapy. Read more.